Dados vol. 30 n. 2 Rio de Janeiro 1987

Fragmentação Eleitoral e Radicalização no Rio de Janeiro: Impacto da Política Estadual na Política Nacional(1945-1964)

Lima Junior, Olavo Brasil de; Santos, Fabiano Guilherme M.; Neto, Octavio Amorim


The article analyzes the logic of political party competition in the Rio de Janeiro municipal district between 1945 and 1964, as well as the implications of local competition on the national political party system. The first argument is developed on the basis of the classification of the party subsystem as moderately fragmented according to Rae's index. Due to the relative strength of the major political parties of the period - the PSD (the Social Democratic Party), the UDN (the National Democratic Union) and the PTB (the Brazilian Labor Party) - in the local legislature in comparison with the Chamber of Deputies, one concludes that the political party dispute in Rio de Janeiro was permanently bipolarized between the PTB and the UDN, with an electorally weak PSD directly contrasting with the national competitive model in which the PSD was the strongest party. Moreover, throughout the process, the electoral strength of the national PSD wanes, descending to the level of its Rio section. This dispersal of electoral resources undoubtedly contributed to the radicalization of the system as whole. The second argument is developed through the analysis of various state congressional blocs inside the Chamber of Deputies during the elections of 1954, 1958 and 1962, giving evidence of increase, decrease and stability in the specific influence of each bloc. The competitive model of the group of states that increased their representation (São Paulo, Paraná) deviated from the national model, seeing that the combined congressional representation from the PSD, UDN and PTB which this group of states sent up to the Chamber of Deputies was of very recent formation. The opposite occurred with the group of states whose specific influence lessened (Pernambuco, Bahia, Minas Gerais); and the group of states that maintained its representation unchanged invariably sent up a bi-polarized competitive model (Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro). Given that this trend became evident from 1962 on and that this was the period during which the party system became fragmented and radicalized, one concludes that local systems exported differentiated party competitive models and furthermore, that this process had a decisive effect on the political stalemate of 1964.

Texto completo

Fragmentação Eleitoral e Radicalização no Rio de Janeiro: Impacto da Política Estadual na Política Nacional(1945-1964)