Dados n. 14 Rio de Janeiro 1977

Empresariado, Tipos de Capitalismo e Ordem Política

Guimarães, Cesar


This paper challenges some empirical and logical aspects of the classic proposition that a market economy, and thus a class of businessmen, is necessary, though not sufficient, to the existence of a liberal political order. Inasmuch as there are historical examples of political authoritarianism in coexistence with a capitalism economy, and based on the proposals of Gerschenkron, Weber and Arthur Schweitzer, the author, distinguishes among various types of capitalism, i. e. politically implemented, politically oriented and directed by the State. These types are associated with different political consequences in terms of businessmen behavior and the "choice" between authoritarianism and a liberal democracy. The author also analyzes the relationship between these types of capitalism and the organization of interest groups in the form of subordinate corporatism, "bureaucratic rings", articulation of general economic interests and an "entrepreneurial elite". Only in the politically implemented type of capitalism is it viable for an business community to operate as a political elite and only then it seem valid to propose a necessary relationship between capitalism and political liberalism. Lastly, the author points out that recent developments in the capitalism economy have made the politically implemented type of capitalism increasingly rare so that political democracy has come to depend less and less on the behavior wich is classically expected of an entrepreneurial class.

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Empresariado, Tipos de Capitalismo e Ordem Política