Dados vol. 34 n. 2 Rio de Janeiro 1991

Americanistas e Iberistas: A Polêmica de Oliveira Vianna com Tavares Bastos

Vianna, Luiz Werneck


The article discusses the opposition between two political cultures that began developing around the time of Brazil's process of Independence: the political culture of Americanism and that of Iberianism. The confrontation of the two is observed and analyzed through a study of the polemic that arose between Oliveira Vianna and Tavares Bastos when the former attempted to show that the political institutions contained in the first republican constitution, enacted in 1891, consisted of an ideal project foreign to Brazilian reality. For Oliveira Vianna, sociology's perspective, and particularly that of rural sociology, would prove the need for a unique institutional design capable of fostering a solidarity-oriented, consensual order where formerly there had been only the dissociated, fragmentary individual. Attention is also given to the value that the so-called Iberians place on the Anglo-Saxon political culture and to how they intend, through resources, practices, and institutions, to actualize this culture within a setting that historically has no experience of a citizenship or community organized as in townships or feudal estates. As a counterpoint, the discussion of this same topic by Argentinean authors like Sarmiento and Alberdi serves to specify the particular terms of the Brazilian dispute between Americanists and Iberianists.

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Americanistas e Iberistas: A Polêmica de Oliveira Vianna com Tavares Bastos